Does quantum theory prove the soul moves to other universes when we die?

Spoiler: No.

(Written as a response to a friend who asked for some thoughts about the article. My, did I ever have thoughts!)

Hi Liz;
As you probably had guessed, I am quite critical about both this article and the ideas it presents. The short version is that I think the ideas are scientifically problematic, the rhetorics is full of fallacies to an extent that makes it close in on dishonesty. I will try to split up my criticisms in categories, although there is an overlap so it’s not always obvious, in which category a point belongs. The categories are:

  1. Rhetorics
  2. Science
  3. Aesthetics


The author of the article is using a lot of cheap rhetorical tricks which basically serve to manipulate the reader/listener without directly lying. I will try to mention a few of them, but there are many, and I cannot do them all. This doesn’t invalidate the ideas themselves, of course – I haven’t read the original book, and an article should in principle not reflect badly on the book that is its subject. But it still rubs me the wrong way – if the idea was really that good, they shouldn’t need cheap tricks to sell it.

The tricks are quite typical across many groups that try to leech on the perceived authority of science to sell their ideas, including but not limited to creationists.

  • The first sentence says that the book has “stirred up the Internet”, whatever that even means. Nothing is said, but it is clear from the sentence that apparently this is a very important book with a strong impact (although I have never heard of it before).
  • It is worth noting that while the whole idea here circles around quantum mechanics, Robert Lanza is not a physicist, but a biologist. I have no doubt that his stem cell research is both important and ground breaking. But that doesn’t make him an expert in quantum physics – if he’s anything like the biologists I have met, his grasp of quantum physics will be only slightly better than that of an educated layperson. Still, the article stresses over and again that he is a scientist, and even the (to this topic)  completely irrelevant fact that he has been named the 3rd most important scientist alive by the NYT. Adds to this feeling that they’re trying to sell me something, and something that apparently isn’t good enough to merit its own sales pitch.
  • The fact that they call his theories “controversial” also sets me off. That is the pseudo scientists’ favorite euphemism for “generally disregarded by the greater Science community as an insult to Science”. It lends the idea an air of danger and edginess that it doesn’t deserve.
  • Claiming that the astrophysicists that support one of the many Multiverse theories are “unwitting” supporters of Lanza’s ideas is
    plain and downright dishonest. Lanza’s idea of an immaterial consciousness travelling between Universes does by no means follow directly from any of the theories of multiverses or parallel Universes. It is simply another attempt of trying to leech on the established authority of Scientists in order to sell a point that apparently really cannot stand by itself. This is definitely a low point in the article’s rhetorics, though it never reaches any appreciable heights.
  • Generally, it there is a tendency of citing different people as just “scientists” without mentioning if they are talking within their field of expertise or not. Thing is, with science – it doesn’t matter who says something. Science is a method that, if applied correctly, will give the same result no matter who does it. On the other hand, no scientist, no mater how much of a genius, is automatically correct simply due to his or her former track record. The only thing that matters is whether they apply the scientific method  correctly here and now. The article generally sweeps this under the rug and just goes with the tired old “whoooooaaa, scientist!” trope to lend their idea an air of believability (if that is even a word).


“God of The Gaps”

It seems like the science case here is beating the old creationist horse: if we cannot explain it, then it must be God (or whatever pet deity or spiritual force they are trying to peddle). A special case of the well-known “if I can find the tiniest hole in your explanation, then mine, however preposterous, is automatically true”. The argument is sometimes called the “God of the gaps”, because such a God or spiritual entity or principle can only exist in the cracks left behind by Science, and is thus doomed to a life of eternal retreat as Science advances – a both scientifically and spiritually poor construct.

Lanza’s chosen point of attack is a very popular for pseudoscientists, the so-called fine-tuning problem of Cosmology. The problem is, as it also says in the article, that with our current knowledge, it seems that our Universe, out of all the possible configurations that the laws of nature and the values of the natural constants could have had, it has taken an almost infinitely improbable combination that allows for life to exist. Not the only one, but one out of very, very few compared to the vast number of possible configurations that could not have allowed Life to develop. It is indeed a deep, interesting and profound problem and doesn’t seem to be anywhere near a solution. But Lanza’s and/or the article author’s solution is less than impressive:

Lanza points to the structure of the universe itself, and that the laws,
forces, and constants of the universe appear to be fine-tuned for life,
implying intelligence existed prior to matter.

…Now there’s some jumping to conclusions for ya. I can see no way in which the fact that the universe appears to be fine-tuned should in any way logically imply that intelligence or consciousness should have existed prior to matter.

Among the problems are:

  • The keyword here is “appears”. The problem arises in a field where we know, that our theories are incomplete. Cosmology (the science of the beginnings and very early eras of the Universe) is an overlap between the theories of Quantum Field Theory and Einstein’s good ol’ General Theory of Relativity – two theories that are both incredibly successful within each their jurisdiction but that are also known to be mutually incompatible. I.e., in their current forms, they cannot both be true at the same time. But they both pass all tests so far with flying colors, so they both are, in some sense, true. Therefore, it is clear that our theories are not complete. But it is exactly according to these theories that the Universe seems fine-tuned. So it would probably be a good idea to remember that “appears” in this case does definitely not mean “certainly is”.
  • The Fine-tuning argument has another problem. It is appealing to say that “our presence in the Universe is so incredibly improbably that it simply cannot be a result of pure chance”. However, if the Universe had taken on any of the configurations that would not have allowed life to exist, we wouldn’t have been around to observe it! So given the knowledge that we are here to ponder how the Universe works, the probability of being in one of the life-permitting configurations of the Universe is not infinitely small, it is in fact 100%. This argument is pretty weak both ways, though. But it should be a word of caution before concluding too much based on perceived (im-)probabilities.
  • The Universe is big. Possibly infinite in extent. If it turns out that all the numbers that Lanza talk about are allowed to change, and the Universe really is infinite (or just big enough), then all possible combinations of these numbers will be covered somewhere in the Universe, and we will suddenly be certain to have regions of the Universe that can sustain Life. There is an entire family of theories that operate with this exact idea – so it is not like there are no proposed solutions to the fine-tuning problem out there, it is just that we cannot tell if the ones we have work, and which ones are better.

“Quantum Babble”

“Quantum Babble” is a quite popular genre among pseudoscientists, known from works like “What The Bleep”, “The Secret” and other far from scientific works – often inspired by, but bearing little resemblance to, eastern Buddhism. And although it is not as bad as I have seen it before, this article is definitely rife with quantum babble tropes.

In quantum mechanics, a system is allowed to exist in more different states at the same time (like Schrödingers famous cat that is both dead and alive at the same time), and only “chooses” one of the states once an observation, or measurement, is made. Many  Quantum Babblers have taken this to mean that the observer is literally shaping and creating the Universe by his or her own consciousness and thought patterns, and have from here leapt to the conclusion that if we just think the right things, our mind can shape the Universe into anything we want it to – what Barbara Ehrenreich expressed as “basically the notion that wishful thinking works”.

But “the observer” in quantum mechanics is merely a mathematical or conceptual convenience – a cute name for our ignorance. The thing is, we don’t know what it is that triggers this collapse into one of the multiple states of a system – it clearly happens all the time, also when no human is looking. But it definitely happens when we are looking, and therefore it was convenient to use the phrase “an observation” or “a measurement” about any of these processes where this happens. Taking this metaphor too literally simply shows that one has a very limited understanding of quantum physics and doesn’t exactly reinforce my trust in either of these people’s  understanding of the science whose name they claim.

Further down, it says:

The triggering factor for these multiplyingworlds is our actions, explained
Everett. If we make some choices, instantly one universe splits into two with
different versions of outcomes

This is simply not true. Or, rather – it is, but that is just because all situations in which we as people make a choice all fall into the category of situations in which an “observation” in the quantum mechanical sense of the word is made. It is simply not true that our mind or consciousness should play any kind of privileged role in this game – all these new Universes branching off of our current one happens all the time (provided the theory is correct, which is far from certain), whether we are around to make a choice on behalf of Nature or not.

The Quantum Soul

While all of us have each our own idea about how the Soul works, nobody has a very clear idea about what it is. To a scientist, however, it must almost by definition be something material, simply because “material” in the broad scientific sense of the word means “something we can observe to exist independent of who conducts the observation”. It is really not a strong requirement to make. If  something has any impact on the world, then this thing is, according to this definition, material itself. Even the elusive property of the  world called Entropy is “material”. Information is “material”. Therefore, claiming the soul to be “immaterial” pretty much amounts to saying “it has no impact on the Universe whatsoever”. When someone then, as the next step, claims this “immaterial” thing to be the foundation upon which the entire Universe rests, I begin to suspect that these people only have a vague idea about what it is they are talking about.

Their favorite analogy to this soul as something somehow outside of the Universe dropping by for a visit is the electrical pulse in a cable. But this analogy is also fundamentally flawed; the electrical impulse does not have an existence outside and independent from the medium it moves through. It is an emergent phenomenon deeply rooted in the physical substrate through which it moves, owing its existence entirely to the properties of the cable in which it runs and whatever processes outside of the cable – but very much in the same Universe and reality as the cable – that created it.

I don’t know for sure what the Soul is. But I am very convinced that the Soul is also some kind of emergent phenomenon, deeply rooted in and owing its existence to the material substrate – our bodies – in which it lives. That is of course no proof of anything, but the alternative is souls somehow living either outside of Reality (and that doesn’t even make sense to me), or somehow flying around in the world, going from body to body but not leaving any trace between each visit, does – apart from some practical problems – clash with the principle of “Occam’s Razor”, which states that out of two explanations which equally well explain a phenomenon, one should favor the one that requires the fewer, less complex assumptions. Clearly, a Soul which emerges from the substrate in which it sits, and perishes with it (until, maybe, one day we learn to migrate it into something more long-lived) requires fewer assumptions than a soul  that is dependent on the brain in which it lives until it somehow can travel around the world, wherever it wants, with no explanation as to how, for as long as it takes, before moving into another body bringing no trace of where it was living before.

One of their strongest cards in the appeal-to-authority game is the ideas of Roger Penrose (although it is not clear whether Penrose actually agrees that his ideas support those of Lanza). While Roger Penrose is a renowned mathematician and great writer, he is a, well, disputed physicist with more imagination than scientific rigor, and he is definitely not either a psychologist, a neurologist or a microbiologist. Which is to say that again, his knowledge of the human mind is not necessarily much stronger than those of the  educated layperson. So his ideas about the “quantum information” of the mind somehow being “released” into the Universe when we die without being destroyed, sounds less than convincing to me. Quantum Information is simply another name for the information about the state of a given system. Obviously, this information can be translated to (very complex) math and thus transported somehow – but where, and through what, and where would this information be stored? I don’t even see an attempt at hand-waving explanations here, just claims. And, what is worse, how could quantum information in any meaningful way precede the matter which it describes?

Human exceptionalism

Another thing I don’t like about the whole family of ideas that deal with “consciousness” as if it were having an existence on its own is how it is rooted in the idea that humans should somehow be elevated above the animals, separated from them by this semi-magical property of “consciousness” or a “soul”. If animals have no soul, are they then no more than complicated wind-up toys? If not, at which stage of brain development is it that an animal is rewarded with a soul (as opposed to a mind, which is a property of its and our brain)? Is it birds? Slugs? Dogs? Ants? And why don’t we see an enormous gap between the soul-blessed and the soulless animals in terms of complexity, intelligence and general level of self/reflection and awareness?


There are other problems about the article, but I am getting very tired now and should go to bed. I just want to end with one more quote from the article:

This account of quantum consciousness explains things like near-death
experiences, astral projection, out of body experiences, and even
reincarnation without needing to appeal to religious ideology.

I would claim that the idea is religious ideology, of a pretty poor, run-of-the-mill pseudoscientific kind, although it is more consistent and thoroughly constructed than most of its kind. Most of the ideas seem unlikely at best, and the whole thing is soaked in misconceptions, hasty conclusions, hand waving and loose, unsupported claims. Generally, where there is some scientific backing, it looks very much like it is cherry-picked to support the already-decided conclusion, rather than basing the conclusion on the evidence.

And again: if the idea were so great, why would they need sensationalist claims and tired old, manipulative rhetorical tricks to sell it?


Coachen og Krigerfyrsten

En gang sidste forår dumpede en mail ind i min mailboks fra det rekrutteringsbureau, som jeg i et stykke tid har solgt min krop – eller i hvert fald arbejdskraft – til. Til gengæld for at de giver mig en temmelig lav løn, ville de gerne tilbyde mig – helt gratis – at jeg kunne deltage i en karriere-coaching-workshop afholdt af en åbenbart virkelig kompetent coach, som havde coachet alle mulige topchefer rundt omkring i erhvervslivet. Kort sagt et tilbud, man skulle være godt dum for ikke at slå til. Om ikke andet så for at føle man fik noget for de penge, de ikke gav mig i løn.


Jeg sprang til, og mødte op til den første workshop, hvor vi blev inddelt i grupper. Vi var studerende fortrinsvis fra samfundsfaglige retninger, men osse humanister, psykologer, sprogvidenskabelige osv. Vor coach var en meget behagelig mand, som forstod at få folk til at føle sig godt tilpas. Få stemningen ned på jorden, sådan. Talte i et behageligt lavt tonefald, havde en helt igennem venlig og samtidig topprofessionel indstilling, og med et menneskekendskab, der endda lejlighedsvis løftede sig over det banale.  Man følte sig kort sagt straks i gode hænder.

Vi fik udleveret hver et ‘life sheet’, en ‘servicebog’ – livet skal til serviceeftersyn ligesom din bil!  – og et lille hæfte med små diagrammer, der på overskuelig og skematisk vis kunne vise løsninger på nogle dagligdags vanskeligheder, vi alle løber ind i. Konflikttrappen, for eksempel, og de ni personlighedstyper. Vores sjælelivs Lille ABC, kan man sige.

Udover at deltage i de fire workshops, var det vigtigt at vi arbejdede med os selv i mellemtiden. Vi lærte at vi skulle huske at trække vejret tre gange dagligt, at danse lidt ved kaffeautomaten, at vi skulle tænke åbent og positivt og gøre alt til en win-win situation ved at tænke ud af boksen og se muligheder i stedet for begrænsninger. Man skal aldrig lade sit job stresse sig, for så går man bare ned, og man dør af det. Det kan virkelig tage på sjælen at gå konkurs med en virksomhed. Man skal sørge for at alle lag i en selv er i harmoni – krop, følelser, tanker og ånd.


Den kom sådan lidt ind fra højre, den der Ånd. Den blev ikke forklaret nærmere. Naturligvis ved vi alle, hvad Ånden er. Og den skal man have med. Det behøver vel ikke nogen nærmere forklaring.

Vi skulle teste os selv: hvor godt er du i harmoni med dig selv? Svarene kom ud i praktiske procentsatser, som vi kunne bruge til at finde ud af, hvor der skulle sættes mere ind. Skal jeg dyrke mere Power Yoga? Eller måske hellere komme min sjæl lidt nærmere mandag og torsdag aften på meditationskurset?

Antydningsvis blev det os meddelt, at der var en højere mission i dette end blot og bart velvære. Der forelå en vision for os – erhvervsledere skulle se ud over bundlinjer og direktionsgange og træde i karakter som inspiratorer og moralske forbilleder og tage et ansvar for verdens økonomiske og sociale og miljømæssige problemer – der som oftest skyldtes dårlig virksomhedsledelse. Det blev vi mindet om, hver gang vi så på bagsiden af vores servicebog, som var påskrevet den lille, opbyggelige passage “En Erhvarvs-Ridders Trosbekendelse” (“Credo of a business Knight”). En trosbekendelse, som er et helt blogindlæg værd i sig selv, så det kunne godt gå hen at komme senere:

I believe that global business has the money and power to make a significant difference in today’s troubled world, and that by making that difference it can help itself as well as others. I envision business raising its sights above the bottom line. I envision business becoming a vocation, like the higher professions. To make this possible, I believe that business must add a moral dimension, becoming more service- and value-oriented and largely eliminating the assumed natural distinction between private enterprise and public institutions. I envisage business taking responsibility for the world in which it operates and from which it creates its wealth. And I envisage myself becoming one of those business leaders who are “servant leaders” – leaders who serve not just stockholders, colleagues, employees, products and customers, but leaders who also serve the community, the planet, humanity, the future and life itself.

Tak for kaffe. Tragisk nok et ganske godt billede på mange moderne erhvervsfolks selvopfattelse.

Det viste sig iøvrigt et stykke inde i forløbet, at Business Knight ikke bare var idealet på den ansvarlige, fleksible og medmenneskelige leder, men også en titel, man mod et anseeligt – men sikkert på ingen måde urimeligt – beløb kunne få diplom på på Coachens egen skole. Et kursus han i øvrigt havde i franchise fra en eller anden britisk erhvervsguru. Et intromodul, der meget passende hed Young Business Knight, blev os tilbudt ganske kvit og frit senere i forløbet – desværre var Deres Udsendte dog forhindret i at deltage og måtte således gå glip af titlen og det medfølgende diplom.

Kurset var en forunderlig blanding af business-husmoderfifs og snusfornuft krydret med den her helt særlige pseudovidenskabelige, let spirituelle business-buddhisme, som er så trendy i tiden. Helt snusfornuftigt, og med en faktisk imponerede stor menneskekendskab, indledtes tankerækken med gode løsningsforslag på velkendte dagligdags problemstillinger, der siden blev teoretiseret op på et højere niveau af generelle udsagn om, hvordan et menneske fungerede bedst på det mentale og det emotionelle plan – og vupti, ind kom “ånden” og “spiritualiteten” igen, ligesom bare sådan, uden at blinke. Hvor kom den lige fra?

Ganske logisk bevægede vi os for hvert modul stadig højere op i den personlige pyramide, og endte med Ånden i sidste modul.

Ånden var, som tidligere nævnt, en lidt mærkelig størrelse. Den blev bare beskrevet som ‘det, der er vores dybeste kerne som mennesker, vores inderste følelser, vores inderste ild” (citeret efter hukommelsen) – men det fremgik aldrig klart, om dette var ment som et udsagn eller en definition. Klart var det til gengæld, at ånden var en på samme tid stærk og skrøbelig plante, som var det dyrebareste vi havde, ja, selve essensen af os selv.

Og hvad hjalp alle disse tricks til vores fysiske og mentale hygiejne, hvis vi i vores karriere skulle havne på en åndelig mødding? Det må selvfølgelig ikke ske, og coachen havde heldigvis et trick i ærmet – sjælerejsen. Drik noget urtethe, dæmp lyset, sæt den kedeligst mulige musik på, luk øjnene og forestil dig du går ind i en have, hvor der er en trappe, som går op til skyerne. Gå op og op – læg mærke til, at du ikke føler dig trættere, men lettere heroppe! – og se; pludselig møder du en skikkelse som er din åndelige vejleder! Og når man nu sådan har bevæget sig ind til denne uudtømmelige kilde af visdom i livets dybeste spørgsmål – hvad er så mere nærliggende at spørge om end karrierevalg? Aldrig mere tunge og forældede versioner af “Hvad Kan Jeg Blive?”!


Det var Coachen meget om at gøre, at vi skulle føle ansvar for vores eget liv, at vi skulle vide, at vi kunne forandre vores dårlige vaner. Til dette hentede han kavaleri fra et lidt andet fort end forventet – vi blev nemlig informeret om, at man selv tænkte sin verden, og at det var kvantefysikkens fortjeneste at have opdaget dette! Som den eneste i lokalet med et kendskab til kvantefysik udover hvad Tor Nørretranders’ bøger kan fortælle os, studsede jeg noget, men sagde intet – ville jo gerne høre mere, og jeg var der jo for at lære, ikke sandt?

Det blev os oplyst, at den nyeste videnskab havde vist, at alt, hvad man måler, afhænger af, hvordan man måler det. Herfra, fik vi at vide, kunne vi konkludere, at det er vores tanke, der skaber virkeligheden, og at man alene med sine tanker kunne ændre virkeligheden!

På et vist plan er det banalt og indlysende sandt. Tanken er grundlaget for håndens bevægelse, når den snitter i en pind eller detonerer en A-bombe. I den forstand rummer udsagnet ikke noget som helst nyt. Men tanken alene? det stod aldrig helt klart, hvordan det skulle forstås. Og det var netop det smarte ved hele affæren – at den altid balancerede med en tvetydighed mellem det indlysende banale og den tåbeligste New Age-mysticisme, som hverken gør videnskaben eller åndeligheden ære.

Kvante-buddhismens evangelium blev forkyndt i uddrag af en film, som vi fik vist. I denne serverede åndelige og videnskabelige sværvægtere livets store og fundamentale spørgsmål for os i mundrette bidder á 15 sekunder ind imellem en bizar historie om en neurotisk fotograf og nogle blinkende og roterende computeranimationer af en masse små kvanter og celler og alt sådan noget anden videnskabeligt noget. Eller, vi måtte regne med at de var åndelige og videnskabelige sværvægtere, for de stod ikke præsenteret ved hverken navn eller titel. Det må helt sikkert have været for, at vi skulle befri os af vore fordomme og lytte mere efter indholdet end efter, hvem der talte. Eller sådan noget.

Disse filosofiske godbidder har utvivlsomt fyldt en del af de tilstedeværende med en dyb sense of wonder ikke ulig den, man kan føle, når man ser en virkelig god udsendelse om naturvidenskab. Jeg skal dog hilse at sige, at dette ikke var tilfældet. Følelsen af undren og mystik skyldes nok snarere, at man på kort tid blev fyldt med ufattelig meget tågesnak, hvoraf særligt en ældre,  stærkt udstafferet dame med platinblond hår, tyk make-up og soverkammerøjne, leverede pragtstykke på pragtstykke.

Den bragte den ene myte og forkerte påstand til torvs efter den anden. Dr. Emoto, der klistrede ord på vandflasker, og angiveligt derved kunne bevise, at vandet ikke bare har en sjæl, men at det også kan læse. Historien om, at de indfødte amerikanere bogstavelig talt ikke kunne se europæernes skibe, da de ankom til Amerika, fordi de aldrig havde set så store skibe før. Og mere af samme skuffe. Meget mere.

Filmen var kort sagt fuld af pseudovidenskabelig og pseudoreligiøs tågesnak, hvis eneste budskab var at ophæve den banale indsigt, at positive tanker skaber bedre resultater end negative, til en essentiel egenskab ikke bare ved sindet, men ved hele universet. Dybt tåbeligt, men ikke noget man ikke har hørt før fra de kanter.

Det gode kom først nogle måneder senere.

Kurset var vel overstået, det var blevet efterår og jeg sad og læste på den altid interessante blog for teoretisk astrofysik, Cosmic Variance. Her stødte jeg på et indlæg, der straks fangede min opmærksomhed. Og den var god nok. Filmen, vi havde set, “What The Bleep Do We Know”, var jeg åbenbart ikke ene om at være kritisk indstillet overfor: et af de ‘snakkende hoveder’ i filmen,  fysikfilosoffen David Albert, var splitterrasende over, at hans udtalelser var blevet dissekeret til ukendelighed, og at deres fortolkning af kvantemekanikken er “vildt og uansvarligt forkert”, hvilket han også – foran kameraet – havde brugt timer på at forklare dem. Mine mistanker havde altså ikke været helt ude i hampen, så med fornyet appetit kastede jeg mig over at læse mere, og fandt enartikel som fik mig til at spærre øjnene op: nok var den gamle platinblondine sær, men at hun var sær


Billede fra Sceptico

Hvad vi ikke havde set af filmen var nemlig slutningen, hvor de forskellige medvirkendes identitet endelig blev afsløret. Plantinblondinen præsenteres simpelt hen som “Ramtha, mesterlærer på Ramthas Oplysningsskole, kanaliseret gennem J. Z. Knight”. Ramtha. Den guddommelige ånd af en krigerfyrste fra det forsvundne sagnkontinent Lemuria, et lidt overset søsterkontinent til Atlantis, som han efter sigende også havde ledt sit folk i krig imod. Ramtha, som har valgt at bruge en husmor fra USA som sit talerør i verden idag, hvor han lærer os, at Gud er Den Store Observatør i kvantemekanikken. Selvsamme husmor har i parantes bemærket ikke bare æren af at være udvalgt som talerør – helt bogstaveligt – for guddommen, hun har også copyright på ham. Alt dette hævdes i fulde alvor at ske i en såkaldt dokumentarfilm, som en coach højt respekteret i erhvervslivet efter alt at dømme får en ikke ringe sum penge af Bureauet for at vise os håbefulde unge akademikere in spe, som forinden er blevet godt blødgjort af sjælerejser og lokkende ord om at blive samfundets kommende elite.

Det skal til Coachens forsvar siges, at han efter henvendelse erklærede, at han ikke længere ville bruge filmen, og at han beklagede sin manglende research på området. Dette er ikke noget angreb på ham. Men historien er meget sigende af en anden grund. Lytter man nemlig til budskabet i både filmen og kursusforløbet, så passer den benhårde individualisme – her pakket ind i søde, halv-buddhistiske fraser – som fod i hose med den stigende privatisering og afvikling af den offentlige sektor. At enhver er sin egen lykkes smed har de længe fortalt os – at det også skulle være en grundlæggende egenskab ved hele universet kommer jo kun belejliget for denne dagsorden.

Og denne – falske – påstand er de altså så ivrige efter at sælge, at selv mørkemænd som J. Z. Knight bliver modtaget med kyshånd og løftet op på managementfilosofiens piedestaler som havde de været nye Platon’er.